نمایی از میلان تحت قرنطینه

صحنه از یک روز عجیب در قرنطینه به عنوان ساکنان پایتخت مد اجتماعی فاصله برای جلوگیری از گسترش coronavirus.

نزدیک به سه و نیم میلیون نفر زندگی می کنند در منطقه شهری میلان ایتالیا و مرکز بین المللی مد, سرمایه گذاری, فرهنگ و تجارت است. در هفته های اخیر این شهر نیز تبدیل به یکی از مراکز coronavirus همه گیر: آن را پایتخت شمالی منطقه لمباردی است که سخت ترین ضربه در شیوع بیماری در ایتالیا. (این کشور در حال حاضر بیش از یک صد و یک هزار coronavirus موارد.) همانطور که از دوشنبه, Lombardia گزارش بیش از چهل و دو هزار مورد از COVID-19 و بیش از شصت و هشت صد مرگ و میر—از جمله چهار صد و پنجاه و هشت که روز به تنهایی.

پس دولت ایتالیا دستور داد یک مستند از مناطق شمالی بیش از سه هفته پیش که به زودی گسترش به سایر نقاط کشور میلان تبدیل شده آن به طور معمول پرتکاپو خیابان ها و piazze ترک کردند. میلان مد مردان هفته برنامه ریزی شده برای ماه ژوئن لغو شده است و همراه با شهرستان را زنانه نشان می دهد که هنوز هم برنامه ریزی شده برای سپتامبر. در فیلم جدید “میلان یک شهر بسته” عکاس و عکاس خبری فرانکو Pagetti اسناد شهرستان تحت قرنطینه گرفتن آن یاد آسمانخراشها—مانند Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, Teatro alla Scala, Duomo di Milano, و نویگلیو گراند—مسکونی و محله های خالی و احاطه قابل توجه سکوت.

“در اینجا در شهر خالی وجود دارد برای تلفن های موبایل تنها صداهای” Pagetti به من نوشت در پست الکترونیکی. به جای آن از حد معمول همهمه زندگی شهری وجود دارد در حال حاضر آرام وهم آور مربوط توسط پرندگان غوغای screeches از چرخ دستی خالی و زنگ کلیسا صدا درآمده اند. “اما نگران کننده تر از همیشه هستند, صدای آمبولانس,” او گفت: “یک lacerating جیغ که می شکند صلح از سکوت اگر به ما یادآوری می کنند که چه فاجعه ما در حال تجربه.”

آنچه رخ داد Pagetti ترین در حالی که راه رفتن در سکوت خیابان های میلان, او به من گفت این بود “عدم وجود صدای.” و تنها صدای شنیده می شود در این ویدئو بالا هستند کسانی که از پرسنل پزشکی در سن جوزپه بیمارستان در مرکز شهر که در آن فشرده-واحد مراقبت پزشکان و پرستاران صحبت در راهرو از انزوا منطقه است. “به گوش مردم صحبت کردن و لبخند زدن در میان خود به من آرامش داد و قدرت به من امید داد و من را در خلق و خوی خوب” Pagetti نوشت.

در خیابان های آرام, حس انعطاف پذیری و همبستگی قابل مشاهده است در ساختمان های روشن در سه رنگ پرچم ایتالیا در شب و در پیام بر روی آگهی های نمایش داده شده در اطراف شهر: “Insieme, ce, la faremo” (“با هم خواهیم آن را”) و “Andrà tutto بن” یک عبارت است که تبدیل شدن به چیزی از ملی شعار و Pagetti گفت: همچنین نوشته شده بر روی درب که منجر به سن جوزپه I. C. U.—”همه چیز خوب خواهد شد.”

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دانلود کردن کتاب الکترونیکی

خواننده کتاب یا خواننده کتاب می تواند به اشکال مختلفی ارائه شود. اگر کرم مخصوص کتاب الکترونیکی هستید ، احتمالاً باید در یک دستگاه ereader اختصاصی سرمایه گذاری کنید. محبوب ترین مارک موجود در بازار آمازون کیندل است. سه محصول Kindle در دسترس است: مدل پایه ، Paperwhite و واحه. در صورت تمایل به اطلاعات بیشتر ، ما در مورد برخی از بهترین خوانندگان کتاب الکترونیکی نوشتیم . 7 بهترین تبلت برای خواندن کتاب های دیجیتال آیا به دنبال یک وسیله جدید برای لذت بردن از کتاب های مورد علاقه خود هستید؟ در حال حاضر بهترین تبلت ها و خواننده های موجود در حال حاضر هستند. بیشتر بخوانید اگر نمی خواهید یک کیندل بخرید ، می توانید از برنامه های خواننده کتاب در Android و دسک تاپ نیز استفاده کنید. ما به برخی از بهترین برنامه های خواننده اندرویدی نگاه کردیم و فهمیدیم که Bookari ، Wattpad و FReader جزو برترین گزینه ها هستند. 7 بهترین خواننده Ebook برای Android که باید سعی کنید این بهترین خواننده کتاب های الکترونیکی برای Android به شما امکان می دهد اکثر فرمت ها را تقریباً در هر دستگاه دیگری در هر مکانی که می خواهید بخوانید ، با ویژگی های قدرتمندی که دوست دارید. بیشتر بخوانید بهترین خوانندگان کتاب بر روی کامپیوتر شامل بستنی کتاب خوان، Bibliovore و برنامه خود روشن شدن است. چگونه یک قالب Ebook را انتخاب کنید: MOBI ، EPUB یا AZW؟ دنیای قالب های کتاب الکترونیکی مکانی گیج کننده است. چندین قالب وجود دارد که ممکن است در برخی از مواقع با آن روبرو شوید. هر یک از آنها ویژگی های متفاوتی دارند و برای اهداف مختلفی استفاده می شوند. با این حال ، سه فرمت رایج کتاب الکترونیکی احتمالاً EPUB ، MOBI و AZW هستند. نحوه خواندن پرونده های MOBI MOBI زندگی را به عنوان چنگال قدیمی OEB (Open Ebook) در سال 2000 آغاز کرد. در ابتدا توسط شرکت فرانسوی Mobipocket ساخته شد ، این فرمت در نهایت توسط آمازون در سال 2016 ، 11 سال پس از خرید آن در سال 2005 کشته شد. حتی اگر سرورها اکنون بصورت رسمی آفلاین باشند ، به دلیل میلیون ها کتاب الکترونیکی MOBI که هنوز وجود دارند ، از این فرمت پشتیبانی می کنند. نحوه خواندن فایلهای EPUB EPUB برای استفاده و باز کردن استاندارد رایگان است. قالب مستقل از فروش رایج ترین قالب کتاب الکترونیکی در جهان است. مانند MOBI ، از فرم OEB نیز بزرگ شد. پرونده های EPUB را می توان تقریباً در همه برنامه های ereader و ebook خواند ، با یک استثناء گسترده: خوانندگان کتاب الکترونیکی Kindle. خوشبختانه با استفاده از چند روش مختلف می توان EPUB را به MOBI یا AZW تبدیل کرد . راهنمای ضروری Ebook Converter انواع مختلفی از فایلهای مختلف برای کتابهای الکترونیکی وجود دارد ، بنابراین ممکن است شما بخواهید در بعضی از موارد یکی را تغییر دهید. در اینجا آنچه شما باید بدانید وجود دارد. بیشتر بخوانید نحوه خواندن پرونده های AZW AZW قالب کتاب الکترونیکی اختصاصی آمازون است. براساس MOBI ، این اعتقاد بر این است که دلیل آمازون خالق خود ، Mobipocket را در سال 2005 خریداری کرد. تمام کتابهای الکترونیکی خریداری شده در آمازون با فرمت AZW یا AZW3 تحویل داده می شوند. جستجوی جزئیات در مورد انواع دیگر کتاب های الکترونیکی فراتر از محدوده این قطعه است ، اما ما قالب های مختلف کتاب را با جزئیات بیشتری در جای دیگر سایت توضیح داده ایم . در قالب های مختلف Ebook توضیح داده شده: EPUB ، MOBI ، AZW ، IBA ، و موارد دیگر در این مقاله به بررسی کلیه قالب های رایج کتاب الکترونیکی می پردازیم ، جوانب و منافع آنها را توضیح می دهیم و به شما می گوییم کدام خواننده کتاب از آنها پشتیبانی می کند. بیشتر بخوانید سفر Ebook خود را شروع کنید باشه ، بیایید حساب کنیم کتاب الکترونیکی یک نسخه دیجیتالی غیر قابل ویرایش ، قابل جابجایی ، کتاب ، مجله یا طنز است. می توانید کتابهای الکترونیکی را در خوانندگان اختصاصی ، برنامه های تلفن هوشمند و رایانه های رومیزی بخوانید. کتاب های الکترونیکی در بسیاری از فروشگاه های آنلاین موجود است ، اما می توانید میلیون ها عنوان را نیز به صورت رایگان بارگیری کنید. آزار دهنده است ، بسیاری از قالب های کتاب الکترونیکی وجود دارند ، همه این موارد توسط همه خوانندگان پشتیبانی نمی شوند ، اما تبدیل بین قالب ها امکان پذیر است. سرانجام ، برخی کتابهای الکترونیکی از DRM استفاده می کنند. اگر می خواهید بدانید که چگونه DRM را از هر کتاب الکترونیکی که در اختیار دارید حذف کنید ، راهنمای ما را بررسی کنید. tinyurl rebrandly bitly opizo is_gd v_gd v_ht plink u_nu clck_ru ulvis_net cutt_ly shrtco_de tny_im منبع: http://gg.gg/h2wqe دانلود کردن کتاب الکترونیکی

بهترین سایت خرید کتاب های الکترونیکی

شاید با کمال تعجب ، فروش کتاب برای چند سال گذشته رو به کاهش باشد. كتابهاي كاغذي سنتي از تجديدنظر لذت مي برند. اما این بدان معنا نیست که شما باید کتابهای الکترونیکی را کنار بگذارید. مطمئناً مواقعی وجود دارد که یک کتاب فیزیکی معنای بیشتری پیدا می کند – به عنوان مثال ، اگر آن را به عنوان هدیه می دهید یا باید همانطور که می خوانید تعداد قابل توجهی از یادداشت ها را تهیه کنید ، اما کتاب های الکترونیکی بدون شک ارزان تر و راحت تر برای روز هستند – خواندن روزانه اگر کنجکاو هستید که کتاب چیست و چگونه کار می کند ، خواندن خود را ادامه دهید. کتاب چیست؟ کتاب الکترونیکی برای کتاب الکترونیکی کوتاه است. در خالص ترین شکل ، کتاب الکترونیکی صرفاً به هر کتابی که با فرمت دیجیتالی موجود باشد ، اشاره دارد. کتاب الکترونیکی می تواند همان عناوین یک کتاب معمولی باشد ، شامل مطالب ، فصل ها ، تصاویر ، نمودارها ، منابع ، کتابشناسی ها و موارد دیگر. تبلیغات در عمل ، مواردی وجود دارد که کتاب الکترونیکی را از هر سند الکترونیکی متنی دیگر متمایز می کند. کتابهای الکترونیکی غیر قابل ویرایش هستند و از همه مهمتر قابل رویت هستند. یک سند قابل بازگشت با توجه به دستگاهی که در آن مشاهده می شود می تواند نحوه نمایش را تطبیق دهد. این بدان معنی است که بسته به اینکه آیا از Kindle ، Nook ، یک لپ تاپ یا دستگاه های دیگر استفاده می کنید ، همان پرونده EPUB متفاوت خواهد بود. استثناء قانون قابل بازگشت ، PDF ها است. امروزه ، اکثر مردم کتابهای توزیع شده در قالب PDF را کتابهای “واقعی” می دانند. PDF ها به صورت ثابت هستند ، به این معنی که هنگام مشاهده PDF در یک خواننده اختصاصی ، ممکن است با مشکلات قالب بندی روبرو شوید. سرانجام ، چون یک کتاب الکترونیکی دیجیتالی است ، می تواند برخی از ویژگی های موجود در کتابهای کاغذی ، مانند لینک های پیوندی ، فونت های قابل تنظیم و اندازه متن و حتی فیلم را ارائه دهد. نحوه خواندن کتاب برای خواندن کتاب ، به دو چیز نیاز دارید: یک فایل کتاب الکترونیکی و یک خواننده کتاب. از کجا می توان کتاب های الکترونیکی پیدا کرد کتابهای الکترونیکی amazon ارائه می دهد کمبود سایت ها و شرکت هایی وجود ندارد که می توانید کتاب های الکترونیکی را برای مطالعه بارگیری کنید. محبوب ترین فروشگاه اینترنتی البته آمازون است. بیش از شش میلیون عنوان برای انتخاب وجود دارد. آنها شامل کتابهای برتر از ناشران و نویسندگان پیشرو ، و همچنین گزیده ای تقریباً بی پایان از کتابهای مستقل خود چاپ شده است. آمازون همچنین چندین سرویس اجاره کتاب الکترونیکی را ارائه می دهد. Kindle Unlimited در هر ماه 9.99 دلار هزینه دارد و دسترسی به یک میلیون کتاب الکترونیکی و هزاران کتاب صوتی را فراهم می کند ، در حالی که همه مشترکین Prime می توانند کتاب هایی را از یک کتابخانه در حال تغییر در حدود 1000 عنوان اجاره کنند. این شرکت همچنین کتابهای الکترونیکی رایگان ارائه می دهد ، از جمله کلاسیک هایی مانند The Hobbit و The Man In the High Castle. لیست کتاب های رایگان به طور مکرر تغییر می کند. اگر نمی خواهید برای کتاب های الکترونیکی هزینه کنید ، مکان های بهتری نسبت به آمازون وجود دارد. برخی از سایت ها در ارائه کتاب های الکترونیکی رایگان تخصص دارند. برخی از محبوب ترین ها شامل کتابخانه Genesis و Project Gutenberg است. در صورت تمایل به کسب اطلاعات بیشتر ، مقاله ما را در سایت ها جستجو کنید تا کتابهای الکترونیکی رایگان پیدا کنید . 10 بهترین سایت دانلود رایگان کتاب الکترونیکی آیا می خواهید بارگیری مجدد کتاب الکترونیکی رایگان داشته باشید؟ در اینجا چندین سایت برتر برای بارگیری کتابهای الکترونیکی رایگان ارائه شده است. بیشتر بخوانید به همین ترتیب ، اگر خوشحال باشید که پول در کتاب های الکترونیکی خود خرج می کنید ، آمازون به تنها گزینه ممکن است. شرکت هایی مانند Kobo ، Barnes و Noble ، Waterstones و ebooks.com فقط برخی از فروشگاه های آنلاین کتاب الکترونیکی هستند که ارزش بررسی آنها را دارند. tinyurl rebrandly bitly opizo is_gd v_gd v_ht plink u_nu clck_ru ulvis_net cutt_ly shrtco_de tny_im منبع: https://rebrand.ly/3cd12 بهترین سایت خرید کتاب های الکترونیکی

سایت دانلود کتاب های الکترونیکی

گزینه های مختلف خواندن کتاب های الکترونیکی چیست؟ کتاب الکترونیکی یک کتاب دیجیتالی است که می تواند در رایانه یا دستگاه تلفن همراه خوانده شود. در اینجا گزینه های مختلف خواندن است که ممکن است در هنگام قرض گرفتن کتاب وجود داشته باشد: OVERDRIVE بخوانید در مرورگر خود بخوانید. برای خواندن کتابهای OverDrive Read هیچ نرم افزاری یا بارگیری لازم نیست. پیشرفت خواندن و نشانک ها در ابر ذخیره می شوند ، بنابراین همیشه می توانید جایی را که در هر دستگاهی خاموش مانده اید انتخاب کنید. اکثر کتابهای الکترونیکی به طور خودکار متناسب با صفحه نمایش شما تنظیم می شوند ، اما برخی دارای یک طرح ثابت (تنظیم شده توسط ناشر) برای نمایش بهتر کتابهای گرافیکی سنگین هستند. برخی از کتابهای الکترونیکی (به نام های کتابهای خواندن OverDrive Read-along) همراه با روایت حرفه ای هستند . OverDrive Read گزینه های بسیاری برای سفارشی کردن تجربه خواندن شما دارد . درباره شروع کار با OverDrive Read بیشتر بیاموزید . EPUB می توانید کتابهای EPUB را با استفاده از Adobe Digital Edition (ADE) در رایانه یا برنامه OverDrive (برای Android ، Chromebook ، iOS یا ویندوز 8 و بالاتر ) بارگیری کنید . دو نوع کتاب الکترونیکی EPUB وجود دارد: Adobe و Open EPUB. Adobe EPUB کتابهای Adobe EPUB توسط سیستم مدیریت حقوق دیجیتال Adobe (DRM) محافظت می شوند. قبل از خواندن آنها باید به رایانه یا دستگاه خود اجازه دهید. درباره مجوز رایانه یا مجوز برنامه OverDrive اطلاعات بیشتری کسب کنید . باز کردن EPUB کتابهای الکترونیکی باز EPUB توسط سیستم DRM Adobe محافظت نمی شوند. این بدان معنی است که قبل از خواندن آنها نیازی به مجوز رایانه یا دستگاه خود ندارید. علاوه بر برنامه OverDrive یا Adobe Digital Edition ، EPUB های باز را می توانید در هر برنامه خواندن (مانند iBooks یا کتابهای Play) بارگیری کنید. کتابهای EPUB بطور خودکار متناسب با صفحه شما تنظیم می شوند. می توانید گزینه های نمایش مانند اندازه قلم ، تعداد ستون ها و موارد دیگر را تغییر دهید. PDF می توانید عناوین PDF را با استفاده از Adobe Digital Edition بارگیری کنید . بر خلاف EPUB ، PDF ها با برنامه OverDrive سازگار نیست. دو نوع کتاب الکترونیکی PDF وجود دارد: Adobe و Open PDF. Adobe PDF PDF های Adobe توسط سیستم DRM Adobe محافظت می شوند. قبل از خواندن آنها باید به رایانه خود اجازه دهید. درباره مجوز رایانه خود بیشتر بدانید . PDF را باز کنید PDF های باز توسط سیستم DRM Adobe محافظت نمی شوند. این بدان معنی است که شما نیازی به مجوز رایانه خود را قبل از خواندن آنها ندارید. PDF های باز را می توان در مرورگر وب دستگاه شما (مانند Chrome یا Safari) یا در یک برنامه خواندن سازگار با PDF (نه برنامه OverDrive) باز کرد. PDF ها یک طرح ثابت دارند ، بنابراین آنها به طور خودکار متناسب با صفحه نمایش شما تنظیم نمی شوند ، و شما نمی توانید گزینه های نمایش مانند اندازه فونت را تغییر دهید. با این حال ، می توانید صفحات یا گرافیک ها را بزرگنمایی کنید. PDF ها اغلب برای رمان های گرافیکی ، کتابهای الکترونیکی مصور ، کتابهای درسی و عناوین دیگر با طرح بندی خاص استفاده می شود. کتاب های روشنایی می توانید کتاب های Kindle را در هر دستگاه Kindle یا برنامه خواندن Kindle بخوانید. کتابهای Kindle فقط برای قرض گرفتن از کتابخانه ها و مدارس ایالات متحده در دسترس هستند. آنها دقیقاً مانند هر کتاب Kindle Book دیگر از آمازون کار می کنند ، اما مانند هر کتاب الکترونیکی در پایان دوره وام شما منقضی می شوند. بیاموزید که چگونه کتابخانه Kindle را از کتابخانه خود وام بگیرید (فقط در ایالات متحده). MEDIADO READER در مرورگر خود بخوانید. برای مطالعه کتابهای MediaDo Reader هیچ نرم افزاری یا بارگیری لازم نیست. MediaDo Reader برای نمایش رمان های گرافیکی و مطالبی که از راست به چپ یا بالا به پایین خوانده شده ، طراحی شده است. پیشرفت خواندن و نشانک ها در مرورگر فعلی شما ذخیره می شوند. این کتابهای الکترونیکی دارای یک صفحه ایستا با شکستن صفحه هستند ، بنابراین می توانید صفحات یا گرافیک ها را بزرگ و بزرگنمایی کنید. درباره ویژگی های MediaDo Reader بیشتر بیاموزید . tinyurl rebrandly bitly opizo is_gd v_gd v_ht plink u_nu clck_ru ulvis_net cutt_ly shrtco_de tny_im منبع: https://bit.ly/33WZ4Tx سایت دانلود کتاب های الکترونیکی

مزایای کتابهای الکترونیکی

کتاب الکترونیکی کتابی در قالب الکترونیکی است. در رایانه ، PC ، Mac ، لپ تاپ ، تبلت ، گوشی های هوشمند یا هر نوع دستگاه خواندن دیگر بارگیری می شود و روی صفحه خوانده می شود. این صفحات ، شماره مطالب ، تصاویر و گرافیک ها دقیقاً مانند یک کتاب چاپی می تواند داشته باشد. کتاب های الکترونیکی مزایا و مزایای بسیاری را ارائه می دهند ، و این مقاله تعدادی از آنها را نشان می دهد. خرید و بارگیری کتابهای الکترونیکی از طریق اینترنت بسیار ساده و آسان است . دقیقاً مثل خرید هر کالای دیگر است. تنها تفاوت این است که بعد از پرداخت یا به صفحه بارگیری هدایت می شوید و یا لینک بارگیری را از طریق ایمیل دریافت خواهید کرد. تمام کاری که شما باید انجام دهید این است که روی پیوند کلیک کنید و کتاب الکترونیکی به طور خودکار بر روی کامپیوتر شما ، در پوشه ای از انتخاب شما ، بارگیری می شود. پس از بارگیری لازم نیست برای خواندن کتاب به اینترنت متصل شوید. می توانید آفلاین بمانید. اگر می خواهید آن را چاپ کنید ، بسیار آسان است. فقط روی دکمه چاپ در کتاب کلیک کنید تا آن را با چاپگر خانگی خود چاپ کنید. مزایا و مزایای کتابهای الکترونیکی چیست؟
  1. کتاب های الکترونیکی تقریبا بلافاصله تحویل داده می شوند. بدون اینکه صندلی خود را ترک کنید ، می توانید در عرض چند دقیقه آنها را خریداری ، بارگیری و شروع کنید. برای خرید آنها نیازی به مراجعه به کتابفروشی نیستید ، نه برای روزها ، هفته ها و حتی گاهی اوقات برای رسیدن به نامه در انتظار آنها هستید.
  2. هیچ درختی برای تولید کاغذ برای صفحات کتاب های الکترونیکی لازم نیست.
  3. هنگامی که به اطلاعات خاصی نیاز دارید ، می توانید بلافاصله با بارگیری کتاب الکترونیکی آن را دریافت کنید.
4- بسیاری از کتابهای الکترونیکی امروزه با پاداش فروخته می شوند که معمولاً با یک کتاب چاپی آن را دریافت نمی کنید. این به ارزش خرید شما افزوده است.
  1. کتابهای الکترونیکی فضای کمتری را به خود اختصاص می دهند. شما برای ذخیره سازی آنها به فضایی احتیاج ندارید. شما نیازی به کتابخانه یا اتاق ندارید. می توانید صدها و هزاران کتاب الکترونیکی را در رایانه یا دستگاه خواندن خود ذخیره کنید.
  2. کتابهای الکترونیکی قابل حمل هستند. شما می توانید یک کتابخانه کامل از صدها کتاب را با خود ، بر روی CD ، در لپ تاپ ، نوت بوک یا هر کتابخوان کتاب ، بدون نگرانی از وزن آنها حمل کنید.
  3. با فن آوری امروز می توانید کتاب های الکترونیکی را در همه جا ، در اتوبوس ، قطار ، هواپیما و در حالی که در صف ایستاده اید بخوانید.
8- می توانید هر کجا که بروید تعداد زیادی کتاب الکترونیکی را با خود حمل کنید ، که نمی توانید با کتابهای معمولی انجام دهید. نگاهی به کتابهای الکترونیکی ما بیندازید . مطمئناً یک یا چند مورد دلخواه خود را پیدا خواهید کرد.
  1. کتابهای الکترونیکی برای دسترسی آسان به اطلاعات بیشتر و وب سایتهای مرتبط می توانند پیوندها را نشان دهند.
  2. کتابهای الکترونیکی قابل جستجو هستند. شما به راحتی می توانید به جای چرخاندن صفحه بعد از صفحه ، به جستجوی هرگونه اطلاعات در کتاب بپردازید.
  3. کتابهای الکترونیکی می توانند تعاملی باشند و شامل صوتی ، تصویری و انیمیشن ها باشند ، که می تواند پیامی را که نویسنده در تلاش برای انتقال آن است ، تقویت کند.
  4. از آنجا که کتابهای الکترونیکی از طریق اینترنت تحویل داده می شود ، هیچ هزینه بسته بندی و حمل و نقل وجود ندارد.
  5. کتابهای الکترونیکی قابل چاپ هستند ، به گونه ای که اگر می خواهید کتاب الکترونیکی را به روش سنتی بخوانید ، می توانید آن را بسیار ارزان با چاپگر خانگی یا هر چاپخانه چاپ کنید.
  6. فونت ها در کتابهای الکترونیکی تغییر اندازه می یابد و خواندن آن برای افراد دارای معلولیت آسانتر می شود. با یک نرم افزار اضافی می توان برخی از کتابهای الکترونیکی را به کتابهای صوتی تبدیل کرد.
  7. کتاب های الکترونیکی بسیار آسان برای فروش و توزیع است.
  8. خرید و بارگیری کتاب الکترونیکی بسیار ساده و آسان است. افرادی که در شهرهای بزرگ مدرن ، در یک روستای دورافتاده در یک کشور دور یا در یک جزیره کوچک زندگی می کنند ، می توانند به همان اندازه به کتاب الکترونیکی دسترسی داشته باشند. برای خرید و بارگیری کتاب الکترونیکی به همان میزان زمان نیاز دارد ، به شرط داشتن اتصال اینترنتی.
  9. خرید کتاب الکترونیکی 24 ساعت شبانه روز ، هر روز از سال ، از آسایش خانه یا محل کار خود امکان پذیر است. حتی اگر در تعطیلات هستید ، می توانید کتاب الکترونیکی خریداری و بارگیری کنید. تمام آنچه شما نیاز دارید یک لپ تاپ ، تبلت است. تلفن هوشمند یا دستگاه خواندن و اتصال اینترنت بی سیم.
18- مردم قبلاً وقت زیادی را در مقابل رایانه های خود می گذرانند ، پس چرا به جای انجام کار دیگری ، نمی توانید بخوانید و کتاب بخوانید؟ امروزه می توان کتابهای مربوط به هر موضوع ممکن ، داستان و غیر داستانی را رایگان و رایگان نداد. با توجه به کتابهای غیر داستانی ، این کتابهای الکترونیکی دانش را نه صفحات منتشر می کنند ، به این معنی که ارزیابی قیمت کتاب با توجه به تعداد صفحات آن صحیح نیست. قیمت باید با توجه به اطلاعات ارائه شده ، سودمندی و ارتباط آن و همچنین میزان دانش عملی ، الهام بخش ، انگیزه ، نکات و توصیه ها و منحصر به فرد بودن اطلاعات تعیین شود. tinyurl rebrandly bitly opizo is_gd v_gd v_ht plink u_nu clck_ru ulvis_net cutt_ly shrtco_de tny_im منبع: https://tinyurl.com/yxaowmls مزایای کتابهای الکترونیکی

MLB می خواهد به نگه داشتن Houston Astros ثبت نام-سرقت پروب راز

لیگ اصلی بیس بال می خواهد آن بررسی نشانه-سرقت توسط Houston Astros و Boston Red Sox محرمانه نگه داشته.

لیگ و دو تیم خواسته یک قاضی در اواخر روز دوشنبه به بلوک تلاش توسط کاربران DraftKings fantasy sports سایت برای به دست آوردن دسترسی به “بسیار حساس داخلی بررسی فایل های.” DraftKings کاربران تحت پیگرد MLB در یک پیشنهاد کلاس عمل این ادعا نشانه-سرقت باعث آنها را به از دست دادن پول در خراب بازی های.

MLB به این نتیجه رسیدند در ماه ژانویه که Astros نقض قوانین لیگ با استفاده از دوربین برای گرفتن نشانه مخالفت با تیم فو ارسال شده به خود را از کوزه در طول سال 2017 و 2018 فصل است. Red Sox تحت بررسی برای اقدامات مشابه در سال 2018 است. ثبت نام-سرقت بدون استفاده از تکنولوژی مجاز است و دارای سابقه ای طولانی در بیس بال.

DraftKings کاربران درخواست اسناد و مدارک از جمله یادداشتها تهیه شده توسط MLB وکلا به توصیه بیس بال کمیسیون در تحقیق و تفحص و همچنین خلاصه ها و یادداشت های گرفته شده در طول شاهد مصاحبه های لیگ گفت: در دادگاه تشکیل پرونده.

MLB گفت: مواد محافظت شده توسط وکیل مشتری محرمانه و گفت: DraftKings کاربران درگیر بودند نامناسب “تلاش برای جلب رضایت شاکیان کنجکاوی” در مورد ورزش فوتبال تحقیق.

یک وکیل برای DraftKings کاربران نمی بلافاصله در پاسخ به یک ایمیل به دنبال نظر.

موارد اولسون v. لیگ اصلی بیس بال 20-cv-632 و کلیفورد v. لیگ اصلی بیس بال 20-cv-1000 ایالات متحده دادگاه منطقه منطقه جنوب نیویورک (منهتن).

بیشتر ورزش در صندوق پستی خود را

ستاره های ورزشی عناوین ایمیل خبرنامه به صورت روزانه گرد کردن از آخرین اخبار.

ثبت نام به صورت رایگان در حال حاضر

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اجازه دهید مردم از زندان

MediaNews گروه / اورنج کانتی ثبت نام / گتی

تیاو بسته محلی دادگاه در پاسخ به کروناویروس همه گیر است و باعث نسخه از همان بحران در شهرستانها در سراسر کشور. Arraignments به تعویق افتاده اند و دادگاه به تعویق افتاد. وکلای دفاع اشتباه در مورد چگونه برای به چالش کشیدن غیر قانونی و یا نیازی بازداشت. و به عنوان پلیس حفظ دستگیری در حال حاضر در زندان به سر می برند در معرض خطر غرق حتی به عنوان بهداشت عمومی سازمان ملل در اجتماعی فاصله.

یک COVID-19 شیوع بیماری در زندان برای اولین بار به ضرر مردان یا زنان قفل شده است وجود دارد, بی گناه و گناه به طور یکسان و سپس کارکنان و خانواده های آنها و سپس در نهایت ، زندانیان با عوارض جدی باد در بیمارستان های محلی بدتر شدن کمبود پزشکان, پرستاران, ماسک, تخت ICU و هواکش. افرادی که هرگز دیده می شود یک شهر را زندان می میرند به دلیل بیش از حد بسیاری از دیگران نگه داشته شدند ، وسیع زندانها در مناطق روستایی می تواند سیل کشور کوچک بيمارستان با بيماران.

میشیگان فرماندار گرچن Whitmer است آخرین وضعیت رسمی اقدام به صدور سفارش در روز یکشنبه که خواستار آزادی “زندانیان که در حال پیری و یا کسانی که با بیماری های مزمن در زنان باردار و یا افرادی که نزدیک شدن به تاریخ انتشار خود را و هر زندانی برای نقض ترافیک و شکست به نظر می رسد [در دادگاه] و یا عدم پرداخت.”

فیلادلفیا است که در میان شهرهای بزرگ است که به جلوگیری از بدترین سناریو مورد. “رئیس پلیس دانیل یاغی به افسران گفت: در 17 مارس برای جلوگیری از آوردن افراد بازداشت غیر خشونت آمیز جرایم مانند سرقت و خرابکاری به ایستگاه های پلیس و زندان,” the Marshall پروژه گزارش شده است. “آنها خواهد بود با صدور حکم دستگیری به خدمت بعد ‘به عنوان شرایط دیکته کند.'” دادستان منطقه لری Krasner کار کرده است برای هفته ها به آزادی زندانیان قفل شده است تا در جزئی اتهامات چرا که آنها نمی تواند آمد تا با وثیقه زندانیان در آستانه پايان حکم و بازداشت برای برخی از آزادی مشروط را نقض چنین به عنوان تست مثبت برای استفاده از ماری جوانا.

در نظر گرفتن این اقدامات مقامات وزن اعم از عمومی ایمنی و بهداشت بهتر بود در خدمت نگه داشتن زندانیان در زندان و یا انتشار آنها را فقط به عنوان آنها متعادل نیاز به علت سعی و کوشش با بهداشت عمومی هزینه اقدام خیلی دیر است. حتی متفکر ترین مقامات را اختلاف نظر در مورد بهینه رویکرد در دولت و یا شهرداری. اما برخی از مقامات دریغ از آنجا که آنها از ترس اقدامات خود را خواهد بود به تصویر کشیده شده به عنوان “soft در جرم و جنایت است.”

یک قسمت جدید از Tucker Carlson برنامه نشان میدهد که چگونه یک محتاطانه تمایل به محدود کردن گسترش coronavirus در زندان ها می توان به غلط به عنوان خونریزی قلب لیبرالیسم. کارلسون, مهمان, U. s. دادستان لایحه McSwain یک منتقد جنایی-عدالت اصلاحات. در مارس 27, مصاحبه, McSwain اظهار داشت که فیلادلفیا زندان تا به حال هیچ تایید COVID-19 موارد و توصیه صبر کنید و ببینید رویکرد است. “اگر ما نشانه هایی از ویروس, مردم در حال رفتن به جدا شده,” او گفت:. “بازدید از زندان باید قطع شده است. و ما می تواند واکنش مناسب اگر یک مشکل وجود دارد.” که دیدگاه این است که اساسا اشتباه است. COVID-19 است که در بسیاری از موارد گسترش حامل بدون علامت و دیگران که عفونی برای روز قبل از نشان دادن نشانه هایی از بیماری است. در آن زمان “نشانه” آشکار در زندان های شلوغ ممکن است خیلی دیر به جلوگیری از شیوع است که آسیب زندانیان و افزایش بار در بیمارستان های محلی.

اما فاکس نیوز بینندگان نه مطلع شده بودند از این counterarguments یا که برادرانه منظور از پلیس در فیلادلفیا بود با صدور بیانیه ای در حمایت از, جدید, دستگیری, سیاست, چون روباه بخش ارائه شد عمدا نادان فرض که مقامات محلی نمی شد ساخت خاردار تجارت آف مجبور بر روی آنها توسط اورژانس بلکه به طور فعال تلاش برای ایجاد شهر خود را خطرناک تر است.

متن منتقل فاحش فقدان زمینه:

کارلسون: به ما بگویید که چه چیزی اتفاق می افتد در فیلادلفیا و چگونه رهبران خود را استفاده کرده اند این بهانه این بهانه به این شهر خطرناک تر است.

McSwain: خب در اینجا مشکل این است که ما در حال خرید و فروش در اجرای قانون تاکر. وجود دارد اساسا دو گروه از مردم که در حال تلاش برای استفاده از این همه گیر خود را برای مقاصد خودخواهانه: مجرمان و مترقی دادستان. و از بسیاری جهات این دو گروه هستند و من فکر می کنم غیر قابل تشخیص. و من می گویند که به دلیل آنها می خواهند همان چیز است. آنها اساسا می خواهید یک مهلت قانونی برای هر گونه دستگیری آنها اساسا می خواهید ما زندان به تخلیه شود و هر دو از این گروه هستند و من فکر می کنم روشن تهدیدی برای امنیت عمومی.

کارلسون: شما می دانید این است که واقعا یک تهدید برای کسانی از ما که در سلامتی مردان مسلح باشه. اما به مردم آسیب پذیر در جامعه ما این است که یک تهدید. منظورم مردم عادی مطیع قانون افرادی که نمی توانند از خود دفاع کنند. این رخ می دهد به این دادستان است که آنها در حال صدمه زدن به مردم ؟

McSwain: من فکر نمی کنم آن را ندارد. من فکر می کنم آنچه رخ می دهد به آنها این است که آنها می خواهند به ترویج ایدئولوژی افراط گرا قرار می دهد که جنایتکاران در خیابان. و آنها را یک فرصت در اینجا. ما باید یک وکیل منطقه در اینجا در فیلادلفیا لری Krasner که خواستار اساسا برای آزادی جمعی از جنایتکاران و از جمله مردم در انتظار اعدام هستند. و او در تلاش برای ایجاد وحشت از این وضعیت که در حال حاضر هیچ زندانی در محلی فیلادلفیا زندان که باید این ویروس. و من معتقدم که وجود دارد این است که یک زندانی در سیستم دولتی است که این ویروس. همه ما نیاز به این را جدی بگیرد اما این بار برای پرت کردن باز کردن درهای زندان.

کارلسون: بنابراین آنچه که شما می گویید وجود دارد که هیچ دلیل واقعی برای انجام این کار به غیر از “ما همه پریشان به طوری که آنها می توانید.”

تاکید دارد که “هیچ دلیل واقعی برای انجام این کار به غیر از ما همه پریشان'” یک bald-faced دروغ است. فاکس نیوز بینندگان شده است می تواند با ارائه Krassner را علنا بیان دلایل.

به عنوان فیلادلفیا دفتر دادستان منطقه قرار داده و آن را در یک اطلاعیه مطبوعاتی:

با خیال راحت و به سرعت به سوی کم نفوسی اصلاحات امکانات یک موضوع از زندگی یا مرگ برای همه ما از جمله اصلاحات افسران بهداشت حرفه ای و تمام اصلاحات کارگران و خانواده های آنها; اجرای قانون و وکلای; تشکلات مردم از جمله کسانی که به اعدام محکوم نشده است از جرائم و جوامع در مقیاس بزرگ است. امن و سریع depopulation از این امکانات فعال خواهد شد و کسانی که بیماری به درمان می شود و مناسب جدا شده; کاهش وحشت سوخت کارکنان ساییدگی و زندانی خشونت و فعال کردن سیستم عدالت کیفری به طور کامل همکاران در مسطح منحنی طوری که عفونت به حداقل برسد.

به مخالفت با هر یک از فیلادلفیا را قضاوت تماس خوب است. برای به تصویر کشیدن مقامات آن به عنوان رادیکال پرت زمانی که بسیاری از حوزه های قضایی گرفته اند مشابه اقدامات غیر مسئولانه است. برای به تصویر کشیدن آنها را به عنوان انگیزه های مثبت تمایل به این شهر خطرناک است بدگویی و دروغگو.

یک بیماری همه گیر نیست تقاضا وحدت یا اتفاق. اما آمریکایی ها که به دروغ توصیف انگیزه شهروندان در زمان بحران در حالی که پنهان کردن دلایل بالا-نتیجه اختلافات در حال صدمه زدن به کشور خود را در بدترین لحظه ممکن است.

و مشکلات بهداشت و درمان زندانیان نبوده اند بیشتر احتمال دارد به آبشار از طریق تمام جوامع است. “پس از مه 22, زندان گزارش کرده اند 226 زندانیان و 131 کارکنان با تایید موارد COVID-19,” گزارش رویترز در روز شنبه پس از بررسی در امریکا 20 بزرگترین شهر و شهرستان برگزار شود. “این شماره ها تقریبا به طور قطع یک undercount با توجه به گسترش سریع ویروس. نقاط داغ شامل طبخ زندان شهرستان در شیکاگو, ایلینوی. پس اولین مورد تایید شده وجود دارد در یکشنبه ویروس آلوده 89 زندانیان و نه کارکنان. نتایج آزمون در حال انتظار برای 92 دیگر بازداشت شدگان است.”

در ایالات و شهرستانها که در آن coronavirus هنوز به زندان اقدام سریع توسط روشن-تفکر قضات روسای پلیس و دادستان ها و وکلای دفاع هنوز هم می تواند صرفه جویی در زندگی بسیاری از. “مردم بیش از 50 سال سن در داخل یک مرکز تادیبی هستند بیشتر در معرض خطر این ویروس بلکه در برخواهد داشت کمی به هیچ تهدید و خشونت پس از انتشار” درخواست مشاوره. “علاوه بر این با توجه به اغلب سنگین اداری مانع بسیاری از تشکلات مردم با جدی یا زندگی-محدود کردن بیماری در حال حاضر شروع یک دلسوز انتشار برنامه و روند توسعه مسکن و طرح پزشکی برای انتشار است. این افراد باید منتشر شود. و در نهایت آزادی باید شامل هر کسی است که در حال حاضر شده است مثبت adjudicated در عفو و یا آزادی مشروط روند و در انتظار آزادی در انتظار فرآیندهای اداری.”

اگر شما زندگی می کنند در نزدیکی یک زندان و یا زندان اصرار مقامات محلی در نظر گرفتن آزاد سطح پایین مجرم بعید به تهدید امنیت عمومی به طوری که شیوع بیماری نمی تواند منجر به مرگ و میر قابل پیشگیری. در غیر این صورت تصمیم گیرندگان ممکن است فکر می کنم عوامفریبی سیاسی مخالف هر نسخه تنها کسانی هستند توجه کنید.

ما می خواهیم به شنیدن آنچه که شما فکر می کنم در مورد این مقاله. ارسال یک نامه به سردبیر و یا ارسال به [email protected]

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می Kawhi Leonard انتخاب تاریخی خود را کلیپرز فصل که در آن او را ترک کردن ؟

لس آنجلس—عملکرد قابل توجه برای بهره وری آن. بنابراین سرعت آن را تحت الشعاع قرار.

در کمتر از 26 ساعت در مارس 10, لس آنجلس کلیپرز به جلو Kawhi Leonard به ثمر رساند 23 امتیاز ساخت 64 درصد از عکس های خود را و 40 درصد از سه اشاره گر با پنج پاس گل و چهار ریباند در یک فراری از جاده پیروزی برابر گلدن استیت. لئونارد همچنین مرتکب نشده گردش مالی. هنوز صحنه در برابر پس زمینه از گسترش این رمان coronavirus در منطقه خلیج سان فرانسیسکو, شب بود که به سرعت فراموش شده است. ظرف 24 ساعت NBA فصل متوقف شد.

هیچ کس نمی داند چه می آید بعدی برای NBA —که آیا آن را راه اندازی مجدد خواهد شد در تمام و یا اگر چنین است در چه صورت. یا نه لئونارد در برابر رزمندگان خواهد بود گذشته خود در این فصل از آن بود و آخرین در یک سال که او را دیدم میانگین حرفه ای-بالا 26.9 امتیاز و 5.0 کمک 7.3 ریباند که روابط خود را حرفه ای-بهترین و 1.8 دزد قرار داده و او را به سرعت به یکی از به یاد ماندنی ترین و یکی از برترین های آماری, فرد, فصل کلیپرز در تاریخ است.

“این یک سناریو که در آن شما یک مرد است که در نوع خود از داشتن یک فصل است که در آینده از هیچ” گفت: گرگ آنتونی 11 سال NBA جانباز و NBA تحلیلگر ورزشی ترنر. “مرد MVP نهایی سال گذشته او شده است MVP نهایی قبل از. من فکر می کنم او خودش را به عنوان بدون شک بالا-پنج بازیکن در لیگ.

“هنگامی که شما فکر می کنم در مورد آنچه که او انجام داده دیگر (Clipper) که بدیهی است که جهش است بلیک گریفین و همچنین کریس پل. کسانی هستند که سه بچه است که تا به حال بزرگترین تاثیر آماری و برنده است. او بدون شک در این گفتگو.”

قبل از این فصل یک 26-7-5 آمار خط تولید شده بود تنها 37 بار در تاریخ NBA با چهار — لئونارد میلواکی را Giannis Antetokounmpo دالاس’ لوکا Doncic و هوستون راسل وستبروک — در سرعت به پیوستن به این گروه در این فصل است. و لئونارد انجام آن بود در حالی که بازی 32.2 دقیقه در بازی دوم-بدترین دقیقه به طور متوسط در میان کسانی که 41 مقدماتی فصل است.

یک آمار خط 26-7-5 به علاوه حداقل 1 1/2 دزد شده است انجام می شود تنها 15 بار توسط پنج بازیکن. لئونارد و وستبروک شد مجموعه ای از نرم افزار است که به عنوان خوبی.

به صورت مختصر طبیعت Leonard فصل, بازی, 51 از امکان 64 بازی به عنوان تیم موفق خود را به طور منظم فصل حجم کار باعث می شود آن را دشوار است به رتبه side-by-side برابر فصل گذشته توسط کلیپرز ستاره گفت: رالف لاولر این تیم را پخش برای 40 سال تا بازنشستگی اش در فصل گذشته.

“اما شما او را تماشا بازی و فکر می کنم این می تواند بزرگترین Clipper بازیکن به بازی” لاولر گفت. “برخی می گویند خوب است که یک نوار بسیار بالا’ اما آن است که یک نوار بالا. کریس پل در اینجا بود و یک جوان, بلیک گریفین در اینجا بود و التون برند در اینجا بود و شده اند وجود دارد برخی از بازیکنان بسیار خوب است در طول سال. فقط هیچ کدام از آنها هرگز در آنجا ماند به اندازه کافی بلند.”

لئونارد در سرعت نزدیک به دو کار خود را به طور متوسط 2.7 کمک در بازی و او را تنها پنجم گیر شش پا-شش یا بلندتر به طور متوسط حداقل 5.0 کمک در یک فصل است. بهبود خود به عنوان یک بازیساز منعکس تغییر در سبک خود را از بازی خود را برای دیدار با تیم جدید نیاز دارد.

بدون درست نقطه شروع گارد — تنها در اواخر فوریه به آنها اضافه کردن اولیه ballhandler به نیمکت با امضای Reggie Jackson — کلیپرز قرار دادن توپ در لئونارد دست تر از همیشه. او تا به حال در اختیار داشتن نزدیک به 33 درصد از زمان کلیپرز بود توپ لیگ نهم-کمترین میزان مصرف و 63 درصد از خود ساخته شده در زمینه اهداف بودند تنهاست که بالاترین درصد از کار خود را به استثنای آسیب خود را کوتاه نه بازی فصل در 2017-18.

حجم کمی به آب پایین لئونارد بهره وری. در میان هشت بازیکن جلوتر از لئونارد در استفاده از نرخ تنها Doncic بالاتر تهاجمی امتیاز. لئونارد به ثمر رساند و میانگین بود به سرعت به بالاترین توسط یک گیر از جهان B. رایگان در 1980. در برابر کلیولند در Jan. 14 او تنها گیر به نمره حداقل 40 امتیاز در کمتر از 30 دقیقه.

“آماری خود را توهین آمیز اعداد در تاریخ همتراز با آنچه که ما در سال گذشته اما این یکی که واقعا چوب” آنتونی گفت. “او ثابت شده باشد بیشتر از یک بازیساز.”

در میان کلیپرز بازی حداقل نیم فصل لئونارد رتبه دوم در, بازیکن, بهره وری, رتبه, پشت پل فصل 2011-12 و کمی جلوتر از نام تجاری در 2005-06. در ماه فوریه او سومین بازیکن در تاریخ حق رای دادن انتخاب شود با ارزش ترین بازیکن از یک بازی همه ستاره زیر پل و بوفالو را Randy Smith.

برای همه لئونارد را به طور منظم فصل تولید آن قرار بود فقط گرم برای برگشتی. لئونارد در واقع به نظر می رسد برای پیدا کردن ریتم در بیشتر بازی های اخیر که وجود ندارد در این فصل در اوایل هفته به عنوان او افزایش حجم کار خود را پس از پا آسیب نگه داشته و او را از آموزش به طور معمول در خارج از فصل. تهاجم خود امتیاز از 118.6 امتیاز در هر 100 اموال پس Jan. 1 شد و نزدیک به شش امتیاز بالاتر از در ماه اکتبر نوامبر و دسامبر.

“من احساس بهتر,” او گفت: Jan. 10 پس از به ثمر 36 امتیاز در برابر گلدن استیت در لس آنجلس. “من قادر به پرش را بدون گرفتن بیش از حد. امیدوارم من فقط به خاطر رفتن سر بالایی از اینجا.”

او. آن شب شروع شد نه بازی خط که در آن او به ثمر رساند حداقل 30 امتیاز دوم-طولانی ترین جمله خط در تاریخ حق رای دادن. در آن کشش او به طور متوسط 34.6 امتیاز 7.7 ریباند 5.2 کمک 2.2 دزد و 51 درصد به طور کلی و 39.7 درصد در سه اشاره گر.

بیشتر ورزش در صندوق پستی خود را

ستاره های ورزشی عناوین ایمیل خبرنامه به صورت روزانه گرد کردن از آخرین اخبار.

ثبت نام به صورت رایگان در حال حاضر

در فوریه مربی Doc Rivers احساس لئونارد سالم بود به اندازه کافی به او گارد مخالفان’ بهترین بازیکن تهاجمی بیشتر است. در ماه مارس لئونارد قطع نجومی-متوسط حجم معاملات نسبت تقریبا در نیمی از.

این همه منجر به postseason شروع در ماه آوریل زمانی که کلیپرز امیدوار به پیشرفت به حق رای دادن اولین کنفرانس نهایی و فراتر از آن. به جای آن منجر به یک بازی انتظار برای دیدن اینکه آیا لئونارد و کلیپرز را دریافت شانس خود را برای نویسنده واقعا به یاد ماندنی فصل است.

“آنها یکی از دو بهترین تیم در کنفرانس غرب دوره” آنتونی گفت. “این واقعا یک سوال است. آنچه شما می خواهید برای دیدن هر چند که ما به و در پلی آف زمانی که همه چیز گرم می شود, چگونه آنها را انجام دهد تحت فشار. چگونه آنها را انجام دهد زمانی که وجود دارد این است که برخی از سختی و اضطراب و تنش است. آیا آنها اعتماد خود هویت است و باید آنها تاسیس شده است ؟ آن را برای تلفن های موبایل عجیب و غریب به می گویند که اما وجود دارد بسیاری از قطعات جدید.”

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Public Libraries’ Novel Response to a Novel Virus

America’s public libraries have led the ranks of “second responders,” stepping up for their communities in times of natural or manmade disasters, like hurricanes, floods, shootings, fires, and big downturns in individual lives.

Throughout all these events, libraries have stayed open, filling in for the kids when their schools closed; offering therapeutic sessions in art or conversation or writing after losses of life; bringing in nurses or social workers when services were unavailable to people; and hiring life-counselors for the homeless, whom they offer shelter and safety during the day.

Today, interventions like those have a ring of simpler days. But libraries have learned from their experience and attention to these previous, pre-pandemic efforts. They are pivoting quickly to new ways of offering services to the public—the core of their mission. When libraries closed their doors abruptly, they immediately opened their digital communications, collaborations, and creative activity to reach their public in ways as novel as the virus that forced them into it.

You can be sure that this is just the beginning. Today libraries are already acting and improvising. Later, they’ll be figuring out what the experience means to their future operations and their role in American communities.


Here are some of the things libraries are doing now. These are a few examples of many:

Feeding the hungry: While schools have traditionally supplied lunches and breakfasts for American schoolchildren who economically qualify for them, libraries have always stepped in for after-school snacks and summertime food programs.

With schools now closed, more libraries have become drive-through or pick-up locations for grab-and-go meals. This is happening in St. Louis County, for example, which is collaborating with Operation Food Search, a nonprofit that distributes free drive-through food pickups in nine of their libraries.

In Columbus, Ohio, the Columbus Metropolitan Library closed so quickly that they were left with nearly 3,000 prepared meals on hand. They collaborated with the Children’s Hunger Alliance, which had supplied the meals, to recover, repurpose, and distribute the packets at three library locations.

In Ohio, the Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, together with the  United Methodist Church food ministry are offering ready-to-eat meals to all children 18 years old and under.

3-D printing of PPEs and PPE collections: Many libraries are putting the 3-D printers from their makerspaces into use.

In Maryland, the Prince George’s County Memorial Library System has sent two of its 3-D printers home with a staff person to soon begin printing shields for health workers’ masks. The library is donating labor and materials for this effort, and like other organizations around the state, is working with Open Works, Baltimore’s biggest makerspace community, to make sure everyone is compliant with specs for the production of the shields.

Internationally, the Milton Public Library in Ontario, Canada, has partnered with Inksmith, an education technology company, to print face shield headbands for PPE masks.

The Billings, Montana, public library is 3-D printing face masks for healthcare workers.

The McMillan Memorial Library in Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, is 3-D printing masks for the community. The Cedarburg Public Library in Wisconsin is 3-D printing masks for the fire department.

The Oakland, California, library has repurposed bookdrops to collect new, packaged masks.

Providing round-the-clock Wi-Fi access and hotspots: Aware that many of their customers rely on the library as their only point of Wi-Fi access, libraries in many communities leave their Wi-Fi open after closing hours. Those numbers are increasing. Also, many libraries have loaned out the entire supply of their portable hotspots to school children who need internet connection to do at-home school work. Others have purchased more hotspots to begin filling the gaps.

The Brightwood Branch of the Indianapolis Public Library made sure all the hotspots they possessed through a Grow with Google partnership were checked out before their closed their doors.

Taking care of the homeless: In Washington State, the downtown Spokane Public Library has opened as a temporary homeless shelter.

In San Luis Obispo, California, the parking lot of the Los Osos Library remains open as a designated safe and clean space for homeless people who live in their cars to camp overnight.

The Richland County Library system in South Carolina, working with the United Way, collected and delivered their 40 standing hand-sanitizing stations to local homeless shelters. They also bought and placed porta-potties outside their downtown libraries.

Keeping people productive, safe, healthy, informed, and connected to each other: Many libraries have ramped up their online presence. There are lists and lists of resources for children’s activities; plans for improving adult job skills and dealing with job loss; hobby ideas; reading lists; ways to sleep better, meditate, and stay calm; ways to exercise; and ideas for virtual, social interaction.

Also, libraries have always been trusted sources of information. Many are revising their websites and scaling up their social media for multiple purposes: bringing in more users and broadcasting the message of their diverse, digitally-available holdings; posting timely, accurate, curated information; and offering up-to-date public-service information on local efforts and issues like city services, public advisories, health directives and requests, tax and unemployment issues, and of course, Covid-19 resources.

From the Anythink libraries in Colorado, Erica Grossman wrote to me in an email:  “We’re working swiftly to become a virtual town square—a place of information and connection.”

Here is a grab-bag of examples of the trend she is discussing:

  • In San Francisco, libraries and rec centers are becoming emergency childcare centers for workers on the front lines of emergency work.
  • In Ohio, the Toledo Lucas County Public Library system has offered its vehicles to those delivering food supplies.  
  • The Birmingham Public Library in Alabama has a list of valuable links, including one that shows exactly where to get tested and includes details of hours, location, and necessity for call-ahead appointments.
      
  • The Columbus, Ohio, library informs the community about blood drives by one of their partners, the American Red Cross.
  • Before they closed, the Prince George’s County Memorial Library System had placed a dedicated computer in each branch to help people complete their 2020 census forms online. Now, the library’s Nick Brown described to me how they have pivoted to virtual programming to keep the interest strong and the completion rates high—this in a county that was determined to be undercounted by 30 percent in the 2010 census.
  • In Anchorage, Alaska, the city’s emergency operations system has moved into the Loussac Library building, with its ample space and robust Wi-Fi connectivity.

These are the early days of both COVID-19 and the creative ways that libraries will respond to it.

More from this series

The theme in this “Our Towns” space has been, and remains, the sources of vitality, practicality, generosity, and renewal in local-level America, despite bitter polarization in national-level politics.

The series began almost seven years ago, when smaller communities across the United States were still trying to rebuild their economies after the financial collapse of 2008 and beyond.

Now, with the ongoing coronavirus pandemic, the very people and groups that led the way in local recovery—small businesses, innovative start-up organizations, locally oriented restaurants and bookshops and bars and civic spaces—are exposed to a sharper, more sudden, and potentially more devastating shock than the one they endured a dozen years ago.

National-level and international responses obviously will determine much of our collective public-health and economic future. But in the past two weeks, Americans have already seen governors and mayors, schools and hospitals, religious organizations and foundations and nonprofit groups taking the lead while the national government has faltered.

The upcoming theme in this space will be on-the-ground reports on the way the economic, civic, and medical dramas are playing out. Part of America’s future is being determined right now in the U.S. Senate, at the Centers for Disease Control, and in the White House. But what is happening in the rest of the country matters at least as much, and probably more.

Let me start with a reader’s note that directly addresses this point, and then a few resources from people who have been thinking about equalizing opportunity around the country, before the current cataclysm. The reader’s note is below.

From an author’s point of view, the most important quality of any book is its done-ness. Once you accept that a book is as good as it is going to be, and as finished as you can stand to make it, the miasma lifts and you can move on—to the next writing project!

From a reader’s point of view, the most important qualities of a certain kind of non-fiction book are brevity, specificity, and humor. I’m talking about “theme”or “argument” books that address a current issue—as opposed to, say, biographies, which can be at their best when long and meandering, or narratives or histories, which are designed to immerse you in the details of another time and place.

When the purpose of a book is to advance a new or different way of thinking about a topic, it should be: as short as possible (so the reader gets the point efficiently); as specific as possible (so the reader can test the argument, and perhaps change future ideas or behavior); and as droll as possible (because, obviously).

American Manifesto: Saving Democracy from Villains, Vandals, and Ourselves, a new book by Bob Garfield, passes these tests. It is short, specific, and droll. It is very much worth reading, for ideas about the next stage in the world’s recovery from failed, weak, and in other ways troubled media systems.


Garfield is known to most of the world as co-host, with Brooke Gladstone, of the public radio show On the Media, from WNYC in New York. I’ve known him in that way, from listening to the show regularly and being an occasional guest on it. But I’ve also followed Garfield’s work through the years on the topic of this book—actual programs and systems to improve the media, both financially and substantively. In American Manifesto he pulls together many of the themes he has developed. The result is something that’s neither, on one extreme, a detailed, step-by-step “white paper”-style report on media improvement—nor, on the other, just an op-ed-scale lament.

Instead it’s part diagnosis, part prescription. As he puts it in the early pages, in a passage that gives an idea of his writing tone:

This book is a cry for help in three parts. The dry way of describing it: “An examination of the tragic confluence of the American preoccupation with identity and the catastrophic disintegration of mass media, yielding a society that may be irretrievably fractured, unless we act now.” A less dry way of putting it: “Run for your life. We’re being Dumptied.” As in Humpty, the self-satisfied jumbo egg that once sat atop a big, beautiful wall and wound up in countless irreparable pieces.

Take note: I am not speaking of Trumpty Dumpty. The greatest threat we face is not from a rogue president, but from ourselves.

The three parts that follow are about, first, social and political division; and second, the collapsing economics of traditional media. (“Media have been ‘disrupted’ like the Hindenburg was ‘disrupted.’ A three-century-old mass-media model has been blown to smithereens, and the surviving journalistic fragments are not only too poor to adequately watchdog the government, but also algorithmically segregated from huge swaths of the electorate. O, the humanity.”) The concluding third section is a six-point action plan for individual, corporate, and political remedies.

For most people who have followed the future-of-media debate, the book’s greatest value will be in part three, the recommendations. I won’t give away all of Bob Garfield’s action plan. But I will say that one of its main public-policy proposals involves modernizing antitrust laws and enforcement, to catch up with the technological, financial, and social realities of this age.

The title of that chapter is “No, Really, Trust Busting.” The term “trust-busting” comes of course from the original Gilded Age era, when new and maturing technologies (railroads, automobiles, mass production, mass communication, industrialized agriculture) created new fortunes and new inequalities. The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, the Teddy Roosevelt trust-busting efforts of the early 1900s, the rise of the labor movement, the state-by-state spread of reform laws—these were all responses. For democracy and civil society to survive after our Second Gilded Age, something comparable is necessary now. So Bob Garfield argues, and so I agree.

(By the way, one of the best political speeches I’ve heard on this topic was by a U.S. senator, back in 2016. You can read about the event where the senator spoke, which I happen to have attended, here, and get a PDF of the speech text here. Spoiler: The senator was Elizabeth Warren, and the speech was given long before she launched her presidential run. The event was titled “America’s Monopoly Problem: What Should the Next President Do About It?” It took place when most of the political world assumed that the “Next President” in question would be Hillary Clinton, because of her then-enormous lead over Donald Trump in the polls.)

I was glad to have read American Manifesto, and I think most media- or politics-minded people will be too. Congratulations to Bob Garfield on its done-ness, and good news for the rest of us in its brevity, specificity, and wit.

Continuing the photo essay about public libraries, which showed many examples of children’s rooms and adult spaces, this collection shows some of the multitude of activities happening at public libraries. It also includes some of the kinds of collections besides books, and some of the public places where books are available to borrow besides at traditional libraries.

Makerspaces are becoming popular in libraries around the country. Some are sophisticated, others modest. Makerspaces harken back to Benjamin Franklin’s early days in the Philadelphia subscription library, where he conducted some of his early experiments in electricity. Ben Franklin was the founder, in a way, of modern makerspaces in libraries.

Makerspace in the Brownsville Public LIbrary

The southmost public library near the Rio Grande in Brownsville, Texas, has an observatory that is used occasionally. The library also hosts movie-and-popcorn events for children who are incarcerated in detention centers alone after having crossed the border from Mexico to Texas.

Outside the Southmost library in Brownsville, Texas

The modest makerspace inside the Dodge City, Kansas, library. It was put together by a young librarian who grew up across the street from the library. He has gathered mostly people’s cast off items, like sewing machines and audio recording equipment.

The door to the small makerspace in the Dodge City Library

Learning the ropes in the maker space at the Washington, D.C., Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library. The library is currently under renovation.

The makerspace at the old MLK Jr. public library in Washington, D.C.

Kids’ activities are held after a summer science program in the Dodge City, Kansas, library. The library invited a traveling program from Wichita. Middle schoolers helped herd the littler kids around the “challenges” after the program. There were hundreds of people participating.

Summer kids’ program in the Dodge City library

Here’s an entry from an art competition at the Greenville, South Carolina, public library. This was sponsored by the local Michelin company, and the requirement was to use old tires in the creation.

An art contest entry made of tires at the Greenville public library

Attention Walmart shoppers: This building is now home to the McAllen, Texas, public library. The internal space is vast, enough for exhibitions and receptions. The external space boasts plenty of parking and room for concerts, catered by local food trucks.

The entrance to the McAllen public library, with food trucks and concert set-up

Libraries catalog much more than books. When some people are looking for somewhere to donate their treasures, or others can’t bear to simply trash their memorabilia, they think of the library. At the A.K. Smiley Public Library in Redlands, California, archivist Nathan Gonzalez addresses some of the vast holdings donated by residents of Redlands. The town is in the process of building the first Museum of Redlands, populated largely from the outgrown archives of the library, and which the library will oversee. The library already oversees the Lincoln Shrine, an entire building of a nationally-renowned collection of Lincolniana, just across the lawn from the Smiley library.   

Since Jim Fallows and I began traveling the country for American Futures and Our Towns nearly seven years ago, there has been one beat that began as a surprise to me and grew into the most heartening story I’ve witnessed of American resilience. That is the story of public libraries and how they have responded to the challenges facing American towns.

If you haven’t been in a public library lately, you probably wouldn’t recognize where you were if you entered one tomorrow. This is no longer, as I wrote early on, your mother’s library. The books are still there; the readers are still there; the librarians are still there. But sharing the same space are children busy with all kinds of active—and sometimes noisy—programs, inventors in maker-spaces, historians and amateurs researching genealogy, job-seekers scouring the internet, homeless people settling in quietly for the day, women and a few men heading to the yoga space, others watching movies, young entrepreneurs grabbing lattes, people considering the art exhibits, librarians helping others research a medical issue or housing issue or how to earn a GED, tutors helping school kids with math, people checking out hiking backpacks, fishing poles, wireless hotspots, snow shovels, and seeds for vegetable gardens.

And in their offices are the librarians and staff figuring out how to fill all these wants and needs of their communities and to anticipate what can possibly be coming to their town next, like a hurricane or, God forbid, a shooting. I saw many backroom views of libraries, from the depths of their groaning archives to their automated transport and delivery systems of books among libraries. I also ran into many pop-up versions of libraries in odd places from front yards to public parks to the middle of a lake.


After telling so many of their stories one by one, I wanted to show you what some of the libraries look like. These are my amateur photos of some of the libraries I’ve seen around the U.S., and even a few others I’ve visited around the world.

The libraries were in cities as small as Eastport, Maine, population 1,300, and as big as Columbus, Ohio, population 890,000. Most cities were in between in size, largely ranging from 10,000 to 65,000.  I also visited public libraries in Shanghai, population 24 million, and across Australia.

Here are some images that stay in my mind about libraries. This first of two collections features the children’s areas and the adult spaces. Coming up next will be what’s in the library beyond books, and alternative public libraries.

The first photo here is inside the Peavey Memorial Library in Eastport, Maine.

The children’s area of Eastport Maine’s Peavey Memorial Library

Children’s rooms: Whenever I asked directors or librarians about the most important efforts in their libraries, or their top dreams and aspirations yet to come, they invariably answered some version of: “It’s the children; it’s all about the children.” And they homed in on reading readiness or school readiness or child development, particularly for the kids who need it most. Attracting children, and their parents, into libraries is a prime mission.

Brownsville, Texas, built a wonderland of a children’s room and have newly gone all out into the ultra-modern space for teenagers.

The children’s space in the Brownsville Public Library
The Space14s (get it?) in the Brownsville Public Library

A former Walmart has been transformed into the new and spacious McAllen Texas public library:

The children’s space in the McAllen public library

In my hometown of Vermilion, Ohio, on the shore of Lake Erie, the children’s area is built on the nautical themes familiar to the kids who grow up there. (I spent many a summer day in this library, but it didn’t look like this.)

The children’s area of the Ritter Public Library in Vermilion, Ohio

The San Bernardino Public Library’s central location has poured precious resources into the children’s room, hoping to attract many parents as well through their children and the offerings there. The collaborative mural featured world-renowned artist Phil Yeh.

The children’s section in the Norman F. Feldheym Central Library in San Bernardino

The Hughes Main Library in Greenville South Carolina:

The children’s room in the Greenville public library in South Carolina

The Demopolis, Alabama, public library was formerly home to a furniture store and warehouse. The children’s area is part of its pride and joy.

The children’s room of the Demopolis Public Library

The Deschutes Public Library in Bend, Oregon, changes the look of their children’s space from time to time. This one was all about superheroes.

The children’s area in the Deschutes Public Library

The small Highland Park Texas Harvey R. “Bum” Bright Library  has a very cozy children’s room and a librarian who always directs children to the right books.

A happy child in the Highland Park public library

The Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library, a branch of the New York Public Library in the Flatiron district, has a children’s braille collection.

The children’s shelf of braille books in New York City

Adult Spaces: The adult spaces in public libraries show an entirely different and often contrasting side of a public library. They range from extraordinarily elegant to cozy and welcoming, to dramatic, to waiting for that upgrade. Here is a sampling:

The mezzanine level of the public library in Demopolis, Alabama, in the former furniture store and warehouse, overlooks the California-craftsman style main reading room. Bill and Melinda Gates visited some 20 years ago as a kick-off to their philanthropic donations of computers to public libraries.

Overlooking the main reading room in the Demopolis, Alabama, public library

Inside the Linn-Henley Research Library of the Birmingham Alabama’s Central Library, the walls are painted with murals by Ezra Winter. They are some of the historic showpieces of the Birmingham library.

Inside the Linn-Henley Research Library in Birmingham

The State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, Australia:

The spectacular reading room in the Melbourne public library

The reading room in the New South Wales public library in Sydney, Australia:

Inside the public library in Sydney

The reading room in Raymond M. Blasco MD Memorial Library, in Erie, Pennsylvania, overlooks the waterfront where the Tall Ships dock.

A public-library reading room in Erie, Pennsylvania

The McAllen Public Library in McAllen, Texas, has moved into the building of a former Walmart. The space for books is vast.

Inside the McAllen Public Library

The Brownsville, Texas, public library creates much of their own artwork. These are the end panels on the shelves in the reading area.

Endpanels in the Brownsville Public Library reading area

Overlooking the atrium in the stately Shanghai Public Library, where I watched hundreds of people working on laptops and drinking tea, in the foreign-periodicals section:

Inside the Shanghai Public Library in China

The small Elk Rapids District Library in Michigan provides a room with a view for its readers.

Rock and read in the Elk Rapids public library

Here are news items and developments related to trends we’ve been covering in the recent “Our Towns” series, and elsewhere:

  1. The furniture business returns, and is looking for furniture-makers. In a series of dispatches from Danville, Virginia, and its environs, Deb Fallows and I talked about this region’s reaction after the three previous pillars of its manufacturing economy collapsed more or less at the same time, over the past generation.

    Those pillars were tobacco-growing and related activities, which for obvious public-health reasons have been in long-term decline; textile mills and clothing-makers, also shrinking over the past generation due to competition from the Caribbean, Mexico, China, Japan, Korea, and elsewhere (we wrote about effects of this shift in South Carolina, southwestern Virginia, and Mississippi); and furniture-making, again mainly due to lower-cost competition from China.

    This week The Wall Street Journal reports on the return of furniture-making jobs in North Carolina—not to the levels of the late 1990s, but steadily increasing through the past decade. What’s the main limit on the expansion? For now it is the supply of skilled trades workers for these jobs. This is connected to two other trends we’ve seen and written about across the country in the past few years: the continued growth in relatively well-paying skilled trade jobs across the country—in construction, advanced-manufacturing, health services, repair-and-maintenance, wind- and solar-power projects, and so on. See a report from NPR here, and from a trades group here.

    The other trend is the crucial role of community colleges, and “career technical” programs in K-12 schools, in equipping students who need opportunities for the opportunities that now exist. I keep arguing (for instance, here) that community colleges are the institutions-of-the-moment, in increasing the chances for really inclusive economic growth. Soon I’ll give another example, from Dayton, Ohio. It’s one more reason to reading this WSJ piece by Ruth Simon.

  1. People who leave small-town America, and people who return. This week, the PBS News Hour had a report by Jeffrey Brown on Millennial-generation Americans who have a choice of where to work and live—and are choosing to live in small towns or rural areas. Obviously this is just in sync with what Deb Fallows and I have been observing from coast to coast.

Of course this development does not mean that the pressure on very small areas has abated—the steady disappearance of rural-health facilities is one of the biggest challenges for small and rural areas trying to remain viable. And of course it does not mean that New York, Seattle, and San Francisco will lose their roles. But it’s an important complicating reality: the re-peopling of some parts of “left-behind” America, with people who are looking for ways to bring new life to these areas.

  1. A “revenue lab” for local journalism. The 10-year-old nonprofit The Texas Tribune has been one of the most important state-scale models of how journalism can re-establish itself, with a new financial model (as discussed here and here). This week it announced a new “revenue and training lab,” to systematize, improve, and share models for sustainable local journalism.

    As Evan Smith, CEO and co-founder of the The Texas Tribune, wrote in an announcement: “We’re creating our first-ever revenue and training lab—a freestanding entity, housed in our Austin newsroom, where we’ll experiment with innovative ways to fund local news, model best practices that we hope will benefit the entire ecosystem, and mentor and coach dozens of our would-be peers …. The RevLab, as we’ve already started to shorthand it … [will be devoted to] this noble pursuit of sustainability strategies for our industry.”

  1. Examples of smaller-town functionality. As part of CNN’s “Fractured States of America” series, kicked off by Ken Burns, Deb Fallows has a piece today on cases she’s seen of communities trying to heal rather than intensify national divides. It starts in our favorite southern-Arizona community of Ajo and moves to Sioux Falls and elsewhere. It also includes a photo of a very powerful piece of civically important public art: the monument erected in Duluth, Minnesota, site of the northernmost lynching in U.S. history, to the three men unjustly killed there.
The Duluth monument to the three victims of a lynching in 1920 (James Fallows)

Here is one more dip into the waters of ancient Rome. For those joining us late:

  • In a “thought experiment” article in the new issue of the print magazine, I ask: What can troubled citizens of today’s America learn from the history of Rome? But the question concerned not the much-publicized lead up to “Decline and Fall.” Rather it was about the “After the Fall” era, known to the scholars at “Late Antiquity.”
  • In a first round of responses, academic historians and others pushed back (mainly) against the headline of the article. The headline said, “The Fall of the Roman Empire Wasn’t That Bad.” The academics replied, “Oh yes it was!”
  • Next, a governance expert drew parallels between the “Late Antiquity” era and the tension between centralized efforts, and dispersed local innovations, that have been part of the American saga from the very start.
  • Then, other readers suggested other ways of making connections, contrasts, and implications.

That brings us to what will probably be the wrap-up—but who knows. Here are several more messages, starting with a long one, about further extracting Rome-and-America comparisons and contrasts:

1) “The empire made the emperors.” In my article, I said that since World War II the United States has run an “empire without the name.” A historically minded reader draws out the implications:

First, it’s entirely appropriate, as you do, to compare the Roman and American empires—even though the US rules its empire as Romans of the republican (not imperial) era did.  

In other words, the US empire is an “empire of obedience.” It uses all manner of tools to persuade semi-independent states and other groups to do its bidding, rather than directly governing territories within formal borders. Direct governance and a formalization of borders occurred under the Roman princeps (emperors).

Second, while it’s convenient to date the “fall” of the western Roman empire, it’s not especially useful from an analytic perspective. The western empire had been decentralizing for quite some time, while “barbarians” had been effectively ruling parts of it, directly and indirectly.   

It’s critical to note these groups did not conceive of themselves as “invading” or seeking to “overthrow” Roman rule. By and large, they were forced to enter Roman territory by other attackers. Their rulers were also, by and large, Romanized. They largely ruled in cooperation with local Roman elites and using Roman techniques. Odoacer positioned himself as a local Roman ruler formally subservient to the emperor in Constantinople.

What happened in the West was very different from what happened in the East, when the truly “foreign” armies of Islam invaded and conquered territory ….

Third, it’s a bit of a stretch to say decentralization that happened in the 4th and 5th centuries was necessary for developments that came into their own 1,000 years later. There were guild-like groups in 1st century Rome. The Romans appear to have developed fairly sophisticated credit systems and engaged in long-range trade. Monasteries flourished in the eastern empire, which remained quite centralized and even more heavily militarized. And so on.   

Could all of this had developed in something like the direction it took if the Roman state had not succumbed, over many years, to internal and external pressures? It’s impossible to say. But I also think it’s impossible to say it wouldn’t have.


In my mind, here’s the most relevant lesson from Rome for current US developments: The emperors didn’t make the empire. The empire made the emperors.   

The US has had an emperor for decades, both through the taking of power and, more importantly (and in Roman fashion), through Congress delegating its powers to him. Trump’s willingness to use those powers has revealed what has been the case for some time.


Another scene from Constantinople, seat of the Eastern Empire long after the fall of Rome (Library of Congress)

2) “Last Bastion of Democracy.” The message below represents many I’ve received  to similar effect, about what America’s fate might mean for China’s influence.

I’ll bet that the majority of people who lived under Roman rule and were not rich by their historic standards would argue that after Rome’s fall most of everything went to the crapper. Although the Romans were brutal at times, those under their rule were largely protected by Rome’s legions at the request of the local governor ….

Suggesting that America’s fall might not be so bad based on Rome’s fall and what occurred afterwards ignores the presence of Russia and China in the world today ………..

imagine a world without one of the last bastions of democracy, the one that feeds innovation and who has fed a large part of the world for decades. A world run by Putin and Xi, yea right, that would be pretty.


“Combat des Huns,” by Julius Thaeter (Library of Congress)

3)  “Goths were very popular.” A reader who is conducting historical research, and who prefaces his note with an (unnecessary) apology for errors in English he might make as a non-native speaker, writes about why “barbarian” cultures spread so rapidly in Rome’s absence:

I just read Ammianus Marcellinus’ account (among many others) of the accelerated decline of the Empire in the second half of the 4th century and how it lead to its fall a century later.

One fact seldom mentioned about Romanity and Greco-Roman culture is how the people that lived under it seemed to deeply hate it.

A reoccurring fact of the era is how local populations defected to the barbarian tribes massively. People joined the Goths, the Lombards, the Franks and even the Huns in their wars against their own country! Goths were very popular among the population, even when then besieged Rome, we hear about the Roman plebs joining forces with their attackers.

Whole provinces that had been deeply Romanised, even colonized by Romans adopted Barbarian customs so quickly it looks like they were not conquered but liberated. Gaul, Italy, Moesia (in today’s Bulgaria) went over the Barbarians in some cases as fast as a generation. By the 6th century, Italians—Italians!—were proud to call themselves Lombards. …

There are many reasons for that; the institution of slavery, the degradation and corruption of civic institutions and services, the turbulent switch from a multireligious Empire to a monotheist and rigidly orthodox quasi-Theocracy.

From reading A. Marcellinus, I was surprised to learn that in fact, Roman civilisation at that point was only working were the emperor was currently residing. As soon as the emperor moved, law, order and good administration collapsed. This is probably why the Emperors in the 4th century were constantly on the move ….


Americans of the Grover Cleveland era trying to repair a classical-Roman-style statue named “National Prosperity,” in an 1893 print from Puck, by Udo Keppler.  (Library of Congress)

4) Wrapping it up. From a reader in the Midwest:

1) My takeaway from decades-ago reading was that European technology, commerce, wealth surpassed Roman levels around 1100 or so. If that’s right, there was a dark age in concrete senses. The trend among historians I read in graduate school was to push the Renaissance back earlier and earlier, but not to deny that there were losses requiring a renaissance.

Then again, who knows, maybe they were wrong, and/or current revisionism has shrunk the dark age (rightly or questionably)  to nothing.

2. If the U.S. federal government continues its descent it will probably take malign forms that will suffocate or actively crush effective local government and other cultural capital. …

5. The question of whether our federal government is on a permanent downward trajectory raises the question of risk/reward in the most radical proposed norm-breaking for a narrow Democratic majority: filibuster end, new state creation [JF note: eg, Puerto Rico, D.C., court packing]. Maybe we’re at the point where risk-taking is the most prudent course—a grab to activate the emerging demographic majority before Republicans manage to suppress democracy altogether.

6. The Pax Romana was also real (or was it?), and the end of Pax Americana may prove very dangerous.

7. Environmental pressure—rising seas, desertification, natural disasters—is probably already driving and will continue driving government dysfunction, while government dysfunction accelerates environmental degradation.


I am not entirely despairing. It’s always hard to tell what ills are cyclical and which ones are one-way streets. No one in the 1980s would have dreamed that crime in the U.S. would go into major remission; maybe mysterious forces will dissipate extreme polarization—and we’ll build new defenses against fake news/brainwashing in free societies. Maybe major technological breakthrough (or an ice age) will save us from global warming.

But it’s hard to get too cheery about compensations for [the end of] a functioning federal government.

Thanks once again to all who have weighed in.  

More from this series

The new print issue of the magazine has a short thought-experiment article, by me, on what happened after the fall of the Roman empire. (As I point out, this concerned the Western empire only—the one based in Italy, and the one Edward Gibbon described in The Decline and Fall. The Eastern empire, based in Constantinople, had many more centuries to run.)

In a first round of reader responses, historians and others reacted (mainly) to the article’s (intentionally overstated) headline, “The End of the Roman Empire Wasn’t That Bad.” And in a second round, a veteran of governance issues named Eric Schnurer argued that a renewed focus on local-level renewal and innovation was proper, since localities were the only places where innovation had ever occurred.

Here is another round, on the point I mainly hoped the article would raise: how Americans, ever optimistic about the rebound capacity of their perpetually self-reinventing system, should think about the possibility that “it’s different this time,” and that national-level governance might finally be strained beyond its rebound abilities. Over to the readers:

1) Civil servants still want to serve. In my article I quoted Philip Zelikow, of the University of Virginia, on the difference between national-level and local officials. At the state, local, and regional level, Zelikow said, elected and career officials have no choice but to work together and actually solve problems. Whereas at the national level, politics is more and more about culture war—“who you like, who you hate, which side you’re on,” as Zelikow put it.

A career official at a national-level agency replies:

In November, I will mark 32 years of federal service.

My grandparents came here with nothing. I’m an age of rising tides; my parents had the grit and good fortune to grant me and my brothers and sisters every reasonable opportunity, and then some.

That’s fundamentally why I entered public service, and that’s fundamentally why I remain in public service. I am grateful, and feel a responsibility to give back.

Your essay, comparing our federal state to Rome in its age of decline, strikes a chord, and in doing so fills me with an undeniable melancholy.

I push back against Zelikow’s “which side are you on” fatalism about national governance, even as I admit I see evidence of it all around me.

I’m not tossing in the towel yet.


A 19th-century photo of the Roman-era arena in Arles, France (Library of Congress)

2) Optimates vs. “Populares”: The battle goes on. From a history professor of my own Boomer generation:

I have been thinking about that [Roman] period quite a bit lately, as we see the collapse of societal norms and the failure of many central governments to actually govern.

I see the present as actually more in parallel to the fall of the republic in the first century B.C.E.

At that time, the empire had begun to take form, with vast amounts of wealth pouring into the center, but mainly enriching the senatorial oligarchs. The men who had fought the wars were forced off their land, which came to be farmed on vast plantations by slaves. The new global order failed the yeomen, mainly because the rich, who controlled the government, refused to relinquish any of their wealth to help the impoverished citizens.

Seems familiar.

The society broke into two warring parties: Optimates and Populares (the “Best” and the “People”). They engaged in wars with each other, mobilizing personal armies, and violence came to be used as a means of government with leaders of each side being killed by mobs, culminating in the death of Julius Caesar. The society had become so divided that in the end, the only way to govern was by autocratic rule: Augustus.

I fear that we are near that point, and that a demagogue will arise who has more shrewdness than our current demagogue-wannabe. Trump has blazed the pathway that others can well follow.

Trump’s party represents the Optimates—the wealthy—but we could just as well see a leader representing the Populares come to power. Think if Huey Long had been successful in the 1930s. Populism can cut both ways; call them national populism and social populism …

We are seeing the breakdown of liberal democracy across the world, as happened in the 1930s. It was finally restored after a decade of slaughter. It may not be restored again. At the least, something new has to take form, and that will not come from our generation.


One interesting parallel to the period that you do discuss in your piece is that the “barbarians” were not invading the empire to loot and pillage. Mainly, they wanted to share in the wealthy and stable Roman society, get a bit of land for their people, and be secure from tribes like the Huns on the other side of the border. They knew Rome very well; many of their leaders had been leaders in the Roman armies, and many were Roman citizens. The Vandals were not really that vandalous …

In the same way, people are now migrating en masse into Europe and the U.S. in pursuit of better lives, to participate in the wealthy and stable Western societies, to escape poverty and brutality.

Climate change plays a significant role in driving people out of their homelands, and that will only become worse over time. Another factor, of course, is Western as well as internecine wars (think Iraq and Syria), and Western support of brutal governments (Central America).

But the influx of a mass of outsiders into the Roman empire (especially the western part) did ultimately lead to the breakdown of the wealth and stability they had come for.

There were many reasons for this, including intertribal battling among the newcomers and the disappearance of the Roman legions as a controlling force, but there was a continuing social disintegration and insecurity. The stable Roman civitas crumbled, quickly in some places (Britain) and more slowly in others (Gaul). I am not bringing this up to agree with Trump’s mantra to “build the wall” (which is folly—the Romans tried in some places), but rather to stress that we must have a rational immigration policy and consensus that prevents destabilization. Mass immigration creates nationalist anger, which is fuel for nationalist demagogues.


As the Roman society disintegrated, government did become ever more localized. That worked for a while in some places (like France), but in time trade shrank, education declined, government services passed away, and instability increased.

One could imagine some parts of the U.S. doing quite well for a time without a federal government, but other parts might do very poorly. Infrastructure would fall apart, as it did in post-Roman Europe. More people would flow across unpoliced borders, adding to the disruption and to the reactions. This would not play well in a society as well armed as the U.S.

No one knew that “Rome had fallen” when Odoacer brushed aside the grandly named Romulus Augustulus in 476, only that the Germans now ruled Italy in name as they had in fact for the past decades. Even in our own long lives, can we know what history might see as having passed in our lifetimes, perhaps that we are now at the transition from the 500-year Modern Age into what-we-do-not-know (as John Lukacs has written)? Life went on, as for the frog in boiling water whom you have analyzed …

Several hundred years after the fall of Rome, new forms and new states began to take shape amid the ruins, and by the 12th century, western Europe was again thriving. But it was a long and difficult time between the fall of the empire and the rise of Europe. I would not wish that on my children and grandchildren, or on theirs.

The long-term results of the failure of governance we are living through will be regrettable, though perhaps as necessary as the Dark Ages.


3) The new corporate “nationality.” A Westerner who has lived for years in Japan writes about the local-versus-national tensions within the United States:

One idea is to reorganize the 50 states into seven regions that match the baby bells created when AT&T was broken up … The merits to such a reorganization are to unify many basic services: Do we really need 50 DMVs and 50 Medicaid programs and who knows how many other layers of bureaucracy that get repeated state by state? This could enhance basic services at the subnational level … On the other hand, it may create the equivalent of seven proconsuls competing among themselves to follow Rome’s decline into empire …

What seems more likely to me to occur over the next 50 years, and something that I oppose, is a rift, with sovereign-individual stance married to the corporatization of society …

Instead of citizenship being based on contiguous borders, our lives are bounded by what membership card(s) we carry. I can go to an Amazon condominium after buying dinner at Whole Foods paid for by my Amazon coins via my Kindle and travel in my Amazon car ad infinitum. And if I am a Sapphire member, better deals as I jump from location to location but stay in the Amazon or Apple or Goggle or Facebook or whatever bubble. When a person uses an “out of service” provider, of course rates go up, and pity the people who cannot afford/are rejected in their membership bids. Blade Runner marries Brave New World.

Finally, on the question of if this time is different compared with other times due to change! change! change! Yes and no. I believe that in past periods, starting around 1870, in these early periods, the degree of change was much greater than now. No electricity versus Wi-Fi and rechargeable batteries; no telephones/movies/radios versus watching reality TV on your cellphone, etc., etc.

But the pace of change does seem to be much faster and disconcerting for all generations. This deserves further explanation, but who has the time to read, let alone write … ?


What’s the point of writing a “thought experiment” article, like mine in the current issue about the bright side of the Dark Ages?

It’s to generate some thoughts! On top of the first round of responses—which were variations on “Actually, the Dark Ages were pretty dark”—here is a stand-alone. It is from my longtime friend Eric Schnurer, who has worked in and written extensively (including for The Atlantic) about governance at all levels, from the local to the global.

He writes now about the proper lessons to be drawn from comparing modern America’s prospects to those of Rome, after the fall. What follows is a long but highly condensed version of his note. I would direct your attention to the place where he ends his argument: Local innovation is important now, and always has been. The difference now is the potential and scale of global/local connections.

Over to Schnurer. I have added some subheads in bold to highlight the stages of his argument—which, again, I hope you’ll think through to the end:

I read with interest your piece on the fall of the Roman empire … in part because of the fact that you were really discussing a number of contemporary issues of obvious interest to me.

I think of these being less the local aspect, and more the large-scale global future …

It’s not the fall of the Roman empire we should worry about. It’s the fall of the Roman republic. One could argue that the fall of Rome wasn’t so “awful” [JF note: This is Edward Gibbons’s term], because, by that time, Rome was pretty “awful” itself. The empire’s peak— particularly the heights of both power and intellectual advance of the Five Good Emperors—was long behind it.

However much as I may like Trajan and Marcus Aurelius (and I always found it interesting that Gladiator set its story in this period, and has Russell Crowe restore democracy at the end, as if to fantasize how great Rome would be if the history we know had simply ended after Trajan and we then got to go back to the republic … ), Rome’s true greatness begins and ends for me (and I suspect for you and most of your readers) with the Roman republic. In fact, I don’t think the problem with the U.S. today is that it resembles Rome at the end of the empire, but rather that it resembles Rome at the end of the republic.

Or, rather, not long before, with the rise of the Gracchi—the increasing economic inequality, the increasing political polarization, the total eclipse of “the greater good” by what we’d call “special interests,” the turn toward political violence, all of which led eventually to the spiral of destructive civil war, the collapse of democracy (such as it was), and the wholesale replacement of the system with the imperial dictatorship: Looks a lot like the present moment to me …


The real question: Where is America headed? Sure, you can talk about the growth of monasteries and universities in the Dark Ages as a wonderful thing, but (a) what we really mean by that is how wonderful it is that there were islands of light in what was otherwise a sea of darkness, (b) that darkness went on a long time, (c) what came out of it, which you/we now celebrate as the result, was essentially:

  • the rediscovery of the lost knowledge of Greece and Rome (not to mention the Islamic world) that kindled the Renaissance and Enlightenment;
  • the reemergence of something resembling “globalization”; and
  • the end of the horrific destructiveness of the Middle Ages—due largely to the institution of local fiefdoms that your piece celebrates as a sort of Brandeisian laboratory—thanks to their replacement by the modern nation-state and the European state system, which represented a recentralization of authority and stability, not a devolution.

What I actually find more interesting is what your piece says about where we’re headed, which is what I’ve been focusing on, lo! these many years.


Seeing the world through a distorted 20th-century lens. I think there’s a tendency—especially among people of your/my generation [JF note: For me, the dreaded Baby Boomers]—to see major change and progress coming in large-scale, centralized, and particularly federal efforts.

This is a warping effect that the civil-rights and Vietnam eras, with a dose of coming-right-after-the-FDR-era, has had on our understanding of U.S. history.

I’ve seen it in myself and like-minded peers who went into law to change the world and discovered, by the time we got out of law school, that the court system is reactionary and basically always has been that way, except for about six years; the idea that the Supreme Court is the great instrument for social advance that gets us around the parochial-ness of our politics has it exactly backwards.

This is symptomatic of a larger misperception: Yes, great changes come suddenly and on a grand scale—but to say that that’s “the change” is to misunderstand the chaotic nature of all systems.

Sand piles collapse all at once, scientific revolutions occur due to sudden “paradigm shifts,” civil-rights and Reagan revolutions and the rise of Trump/Brexitism burst on the scene—but these are long-term dynamics that may have large-scale effects but play out on the level of individual grains of sand.

There’s a great George Bernard Shaw line about the moment of success occurring long before the moment that it is apparent to the crowd; this is true of just about everything. Brown v. Board took 40 years of small litigation steps—not to mention dramatic changes throughout society, including the integration of the armed forces during and after WWII, just as the massive mobilizations of the peasantry in the Napoleonic Wars led eventually to the democratization of Europe. The big events are the capstones—they are always driven and made possible by small-scale, localized innovations that eventually flow together into what is by then an inevitable deluge.

Brown’s and Scheidel’s celebration of the breakup of the empire as allowing local innovations strikes me as wrong in the same sort of way: These local innovations are always occurring, because that’s where innovation occurs.

This is like the discussion I’m having these days with my 26-year-old niece, who wants to go overturn the entire capitalist and food-production systems to bring about the millennium; having once been 26, I get it, but I have to keep telling her that, with rare exceptions like the Russian Revolution, French Revolution, Taiping Kingdom, etc., you rarely get to upheave the entire system all at once—and when you do, it usually doesn’t turn out too well … In any event, my argument would really be that all of those were not sudden upheavals, any more than Trump’s election was; they were simply culminations of longer trends that started from smaller scale “innovations.”


The enlightening place to look is always local. If you want to know where the world is headed, you need to find the unknown lunatics toiling away in a lab in Menlo Park, New Jersey, or a patent office in Basel, or a garage in Menlo Park, California, or the mayor’s office in South Bend—not what the world leaders and experts are saying … I don’t know if finding what people are up to should be encouraging of optimism—I mean, some local innovation includes some bizarre people meeting in Munich beer halls who a decade later launch WWII—but it’s instructive

Local is where most people always choose to get involved: It’s not just the current dysfunctionality that channels most people into school-board meetings instead of seeking to draft new national legislation. Some small number of crazy people like you and me are drawn to the latter, but that’s a distinct minority, always has been, and always will be.

My work has brought me into contact with people all around the country who were thinking about productive little ideas about how to improve their neighborhoods, their kid’s school, their small business and how it affected their workers, etc. … My contribution has been largely in recognizing them and thinking, Hey, that would make a great basis for a “program” that my candidate could propose, scale up, and fund as governor!

I eventually concluded—as has anyone I know who has thought about government systems from the standpoint of achieving results instead of promoting one’s career—that what state and (ESPECIALLY) national governments do is simply to fund to-scale solutions someone else has discovered, tested, and proved at an “atomic” level …

The way to make a contribution is to go start a school that works, or a neighborhood organization that solves a problem …


Coming to a “point of rupture,” which sounds bad, but … And that takes us to where we’re actually headed as a result. You quote Morley Winograd talking about “networked localities” taking control of global policy. I think that’s sorta correct: In the Aztec language, there’s a phenomenon of two words being placed together to mean something both synergistic and different from the words separately; e.g., “the flower the song” meant “poetry,” and “the water the fire” meant “conquest” or “destruction.”

I think you need to look at your/Winograd’s phrase networked localities in the same way: It’s not just, or even, about the devolution to localities—the “networked” part is essential, and changes the meaning.

Your own work focuses very much on local action and innovation; I’ve been arguing that the virtual world fundamentally changes all of this: It undermines territorial structures like nation-states and the new world order—in that way, Brexit, Scottish devolution, California and even cities going their own way on the Paris accords, cities globally becoming the players rather than nation-states, etc., are all foreseeable developments …

I think we will start developing worldwide “communities” that are not physically connected, but rather are “localized” in the sense of being nodes of innovation or communication or consumption or whatever in a non-physically-contiguous/nonphysical network …

And that’s ultimately what the post-empire question is about. The entire system of civilization as we know it—not simply “the American empire”—is coming to a point of rupture. There may very well be a largely recognizable U.S. at the end of it (although I doubt it), but that will be irrelevant, because the world in which that U.S. is embedded—its political structures, its economic structures, its entire intellectual framework, and its physical manifestations—will all have changed as radically as the 13th century is from today.

And all that massive change will happen massively more quickly than in the 13th century … I write and talk about stuff like this, and people think it sounds “awful” and scary. Where I perhaps share a bit of your optimism is that I don’t.

Sure, the entire world as we know it being wiped away sounds scary, but it’s not necessarily “awful.” If you told people in the 13th century about the world today—family, church, village, political overlord, entire basis of the economy, entire intellectual framework (“Evolution?” “Relativity?” “Quantum mechanics?”), all as you knew them completely gone—they’d think that 100 percent awful. But do you know a single person who would rather be living in the 13th century than today?

More from this series

The new issue of the print magazine contains a story by me called “The End of the Roman Empire Wasn’t That Bad.”

The title (which, like most titles, I didn’t write) represented (like many titles) intentional overstatement-for-effect. But the point of the piece was to suggest that maybe Americans should shift the way they talked and thought about the Roman Empire as a metaphor for this country.

For as long as there has been an American republic, some Americans have worried about its impending Roman-style decline and fall. I said: What about the time after Rome fell? What could we learn by imagining ourselves in our version of the Dark Ages—with a failed system of central governance, and life going on at the duchy-by-duchy, monastery-by-monastery level, which for us would mean cities, states, and regions?

You can read the whole thing yourself—and it isn’t even very long.

Readers have weighed in with a range of views.

In this first roundup, I’ll highlight only critical ones. You’ll see some common themes here, expressed with clarity and erudition that make it a privilege to reach this kind of readership—even when, as now, they’re giving me a hard time writing in to disagree. I’ll have a brief response at the end.

Let’s begin:

  1. Not “transition” but “collapse.” From a reader in an academic post:

Oh my, you dove into a nasty controversy here. While scholars like Peter Brown and Walter Goffart make an  interesting case about “transition,” people like Bryan Ward-Perkins have made what I think is a more compelling case about “collapse of civilization.”

A few things to keep in mind—and on these no one debates:

  • Population fell. That is a vaguely neutral sounding term, but that is shorthand for murder, rape, starvation, and disease.
  • Literacy diminished dramatically or was largely lost.
  • Material possessions diminished in quality and quantity. People were poorer.

I know you are on a pitch about the renewal of our country at the local level. I think that is wishful thinking, but whatever. But the Roman example is a doleful one. Yes, some institutions thrived, but people didn’t. They became poorer, less secure, and less literate.

Seeing the Fall/Transition of the Roman empire as anything other than a human catastrophe is an interesting academic exercise, but let’s keep it at that.


  1. “The roofs have rushed to earth, towers in ruins.”  From another reader, who in his day job is a successful software designer. (This is Mark Bernstein, of Eastgate, designer of the program Tinderbox and long-ago guest blogger on this site, when “guest blogging” was a thing.)

The indispensable book on the end of Rome in the West is Bryan Ward-Perkins, The Fall Of Rome and the End of Civilization.  It’s a very short book, it’s important, and it’s fun to read.

One key observation: in the 4th century, an impoverished Italian shepherd ate his dinner on imported tableware, drank imported wine and seasoned his salad with imported oil. He covered his roof (and maybe his manger’s roof as well) in mass-produced roof tiles. In the 6th century, the proudest possessions of kings were fancy safety pins, and their palaces were wooden halls with thatched roofs. In the years of the Empire, Rome imported so much olive oil that the 53 million decommissioned amphorae now form the hill of Monte Testaccio. In the eighth, kings made do with whatever the local brewers could manage, and poured for their guests from decorated beakers made next door.

In the fourth century, Romans built the Old St. Peters and repurposed the Lateran; it’s been through lots of rebuilding but the Roman building was about the modern size.  It’s big. In the sixth century, they built Santa Maria In Aracoeli—a small building, constructed on some of Rome’s prime real estate out of mismatched scraps and bits of junk. The junk was nicer than anything money could buy.  And they built S. Agnese fuori-le-mura, which is the size of a nice house.

A Pompeiian perfume-seller left us long brothel graffiti as a tribute to a lovely evening. Lots of poor people left us graffiti. Charlemagne never quite managed to learn to write.

To the best of my knowledge, we know too little about what happened to North Africa in this era. It wasn’t pretty. In the second century, North Africa was a real economic powerhouse and a huge food exporter. The irrigation system was wrecked in battles over tax cuts for wealthy estate-owners, and that was that. It was an ecological disaster that made the Western Empire unsupportable.


I’m not sure that the delocalization of governance in the West is an encouraging lesson, either. Yes, there were bright spots—Lindesfarne, Kells, Aachen, Kyev—but they were bright in contrast to the prevailing misery. Look at the opening of The Ruin (trans. Aaron Hostetter https://anglosaxonpoetry.camden.rutgers.edu/the-ruin/):

These wall-stones are wondrous—

calamities crumpled them, these city-sites crashed, the work of giants corrupted.

The roofs have rushed to earth, towers in ruins.

Wrætlic is þes wealstan, wyrde gebræcon;
burgstede burston, brosnað enta geweorc.
Hrofas sind gehrorene, hreorge torras,

Whoever wrote this knew more than we about what living in the 8th century was like, and he seems pretty certain that things had once been better than they were.


This dispatch is in the form of a newsletter update, on reactions from readers and significant developments around the country on the local-renewal fronts. It follows this Fourth of July post, about Eric Liu’s argument for a revival of “civic religion,” and this post by Deb Fallows, on our increasing effort to connect, compare, combine, and in other ways “biggify” the multiple, dispersed examples of local renewal around the country.

Four entries in that direction:

1) “Does America need a ‘civic religion’?”: Eric Liu has long argued yes. Mike Lofgren, a longtime veteran of congressional operations, writes in to say that he begs to differ:

Does America need a civic religion?

No.

This subject, like the thesis that “Democrats need to talk about their faith” (I thought the Constitution banned religious tests for office), is a favorite chew-toy of centrist and left-of-center public intellectuals who fear the Republicans have stolen their clothes with all the flag-worship and similar ritualized razzmatazz. Apart from the tactical issue that the subject plays on the Right’s turf, there are fundamental objections.

Religion and modern democratic civil government do vastly different things. It is true that governing entities arose amid all manner of ritual, but they were hierarchical, and religion and state were the same thing.

Enforced ritual is essential to maintaining monarchies, class-based societies, and militaries. The Founders tried to dispense with a lot of the typical ritual of European monarchies for the new republic, such as addressing the president as Your Excellency; and Washington conspicuously wore no medals on his uniform coat.

There are more reasons, but I wanted to keep this brief.

We’ll have more on this theme.


2) Going home, to Jackson. A reporter for Mississippi Today named Larrison Campbell has been in the national news this week. She has been covering a gubernatorial candidate named Robert Foster, who has now refused to let her ride with him (unaccompanied) on a campaign swing, “out of precaution.” Precaution against—oh, it’s not worth even dignifying the claim by spelling it out.

Although this has nothing to do with the central merits of Foster’s stance, it is worth mentioning that Campbell is openly gay and is married to a woman named Courtenay. Together they are raising two young children in Jackson.

Their home in Jackson is the reason I mention this development. Last year, for Architectural Digest, Larrison Campbell wrote a very nice essay on her decision to move from Los Angeles, where she had spent nearly two decades developing a successful media career, to Mississippi, where she grew up.

Her story is, of course, unique in its particulars, but familiar in its general themes to what Deb and I have heard in many places. Campbell’s whole article is here. Some samples:

Sometimes you can be blinded by love or infatuation; friends probably thought we were [to go back to Mississippi]. But in L.A., no one’s direct enough to tell you you’re acting like a fool. Instead, half a dozen friends showed up at our going-away party with large bottles of vodka and bourbon “to help with the move.” Subtext: Adventures aren’t often easy …

Our two great American holidays are, of course, Thanksgiving and the Fourth of July.

They’re particularly American: Independence Day, for obvious reasons. Thanksgiving, because no one else observes it (other than Canadians, who have their own version on their own timetable), or can keep track of when it is. For Americans overseas it’s a particularly wonderful gathering day, on what the Brits or Koreans or French people around you assume is just another Thursday.

They have their rituals: In November, when it’s cold, we have the family gatherings, the pie and turkey, the stuporous sessions watching football or parades on TV. In July, when it’s hot, we have the picnics, the parades, the hot dogs, and the fireworks.

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